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The Sex Chromosomes of Frogs: Variability and Tolerance provide Clues to Genome Evolution and Function

Jacob W. Malcom, Randal S. Kudra, John H. Malone

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269 USA

Frog intercourse chromosomes offer a system that is ideal advancing our comprehension of genome evolution and function due to the number of intercourse dedication systems into the team, the variety of intercourse chromosome maturation states, the convenience of experimental manipulation during very very early development. After shortly reviewing intercourse chromosome biology generally speaking, we give attention to what exactly is known about frog sex determination, intercourse chromosome development, and present, genomics-facilitated improvements within the industry. To summarize we highlight gaps inside our knowledge that is current of sex chromosomes, and recommend priorities for future research that will advance broad understanding of gene dosage and intercourse chromosome development.

Keyword phrases: Homomorphic, aneuploidy, dosage, settlement, sex dedication

Introduction

Alterations in gene content quantity are a crucial supply of variation for development, but new content figures that change gene dosage usually presents a challenge for organismal success. The scale of copy-number modification can are the deletion or replication of 1 or even a genes that are few to polyploidization of all of the genes through whole-genome replication 1-3. Post-duplication, genes routinely have certainly one of three fates: nonfunctionalization, by which only 1 associated with copies keeps any function; subfunctionalization, where the copies diversify to “share” the event for the initial; or neofunctionalization, by which one of the gene copies gains a novel function 2, 4, 5.